The whole area of Castelnuovo was completely devastated by the First World War; still today there are many remains and traces of the conflict scattered throughout this portion of territory.

When the imminence of the conflict was sensed, the Austrian Imperial Army raised for the defence setting up a front line of small posts situated along the left mountain system of the Isonzo, while a more articulate line was set up on the top of the Karst ridge and therefore also very close to the Villa.

In June 1915, the Italian troops managed to breach the lines in proximity of Sagrado and advanced towards the rocky slopes and the plateau at the back.

The first offensive leap was followed by the I, II, III, IV, and V Battles of the Isonzo during which the attackers engaged in slaughterous and sanguinary heavy fighting, reaching the Karst plateau in various points. During this lapse of time Castelnuovo was directly involved in the fighting and several units, among which, the men of the Bologna, Siena, Sassari, Brescia brigades the Bersaglieri and the voluteers of 22nd October, were exhausted to gain these Hills.

The opposing front lines lay just a little beyond the villa. Sheltered away from Hill 143, Castelnuovo became a station where the troops were assembled, sorted, withdrawn and given shelter to; it also served as a field medical post. From this foothold on the Karst front, the Italian troops approaching from Sagrado could be directed towards the Bosco Cappuccio woods, the Trincea delle Frasche trench; and further south to the Trincea dei Morti trench; Filippo Corridoni together with his volunteers, recruited from Milan, based here for a while and the Sassari Brigade passed through on its way to taking the Trincea delle Frasche trench during the battles that raged through the Karst in the autumn of 1915 (III, IV and V Battle of the Isonzo).

By the end of November, the front lines remained unmoved from the position they had gained; there was a general reorganization and the military logistics improved progressively. A real war village was established in the proximity of the villa, sheltering to the 25th Division, and several artillery posts were set up in preparation for further offensives.

Between June and December of 1915, the Karst and Isonzo Italian front lines suffered 54,000 dead, 160,000 injured and 21,000 missing. The Austrian military sources record the loss of 151,000 soldiers during the same period.

The V Battle (spring of 1916) was mainly demonstrative and did not lead to any substantial changes.

Only in August of 1916, with the VI Battle of the Isonzo, also known as the Battle of Gorizia, the Austro-Hungarian defense was overcome by the Italian army, which seized Mount Sabotino and Mount San Michele, hence shifting the new fighting line beyond Doberdò, on the other side of the deep valley bottoming the Karst. The villa was still exploited as a logistic post and foothold behind the lines for the supplies to the front lines.

One year later, with the defeat of Caporetto, on 24th October 1917, the units of the III Italian Army Corps to avoid the Austro-German outflanking from the north, hurriedly abandoned the villa.


TIMELINE

The hamlet, which still today is known as Carso di Castelnuovo, was the site of the following sanguinary battles:

23rd June - 7th July 1915: I Battle of the Isonzo

18th July - 3rd August 1915: II Battle of the Isonzo
a) First phase from 18th to 23rd July
b) Second phase from the 24th July to 3rd August

4th August - 18th October 1915: Reorganization of the troops in view of the autumn offensive

18th October - 4th November 1915: III Battle of the Isonzo
a) First phase from 18th to the 26th October: Filippo Corridoni dies
b) Second phase from 27th October to 4th November

10th November - 2nd December: IV Battle of the Isonzo
a) First phase from 10th to the 14th November
b) Second phase from 15th November to 2nd December: Giacomo Venezian dies

9th - 15th March 1916: V Battle of the Isonzo

La Grande Guerra

La Grande Guerra

La Grande Guerra

La Grande Guerra